Dr. Cheryl A. Kerfeld
Cheryl A. Kerfeld
Structural Biology
Adjunct Associate Professor
1 Cyclotron Road, Mailstop 64-R0121
Berkeley, California 94720
Phone 510.486.6078
Lab Phone 510.486.6846
Fax 510.642.4995

PhD  Structural Biology    University of California, Los Angeles
B.A.   Biology and English    University of Minnesota

Dr. Kerfeld's campus address:

Department of Plant & Microbial Biology
111 Koshland Hall
Berkeley, CA 94720


Structural and functional characterization of bacterial microcompartments and of proteins involved in photoprotection in photosynthetic organisms.

Selected Publications

Erbilgin, O.,   McDonald, K., and Kerfeld, C.A.  Functional Characterization of a Novel Bacterial Microcompartment in the PlanctomycetesApplied and Environmental Microbiology in press.

Shih, P.M., Zarzycki, J.,  Niyogi, K.K. and Kerfeld, C.A.  Introduction of a Synthetic CO2-Fixing Photorespiratory Bypass into a Cyanobacterium. Journal of Biological Chemistry in press.

Lassila, J.K., Bernstein, S.L., Axen S.D., Kinney J.N. and Kerfeld, C.A.  Assembly of Robust Bacterial Microcompartment Shells using Building Blocks from an Organelle of Unknown Function. Journal of  Molecular Biology in press.

Leverenz,R.L., Jallet, D., Li,M., Mathies, R.A.,  Kirilovsky, D. and Kerfeld, C.A. Structural and Functional Modularity of the Orange Carotenoid Protein:  Distinct  Roles for  the N- and C-terminal  Domains in Cyanobacterial Photoprotection. The Plant Cell 26: 426-437 (2014).

Matzke, N.J.,  Shih, P.M. and Kerfeld, C.A.  Bayesian Analysis of Congruence of Core Genes in Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus and Implications on Horizontal Gene Transfer.  PLOSOne 9(1): e85103, 2014. 

Appel, A.,  Bocarsly, A., Bercaw, J., Dobbek, H.,  Dupuis, M.,  DuBois, D.J., Ferry, J.G., Fujita, E., Hille, R.,  Kenis, P.J.A., Kerfeld, C.A.,  Morris, R., Peden, C., Portis, A.,  Ragsdale, S., Rauchfuss,T.B.,  Reek, J.N.H.,  Seefeldt, L., Thauer, R., Waldrop, G. Frontiers, Opportunities, and Challenges in Biochemical and Chemical Catalysis of CO2Chemical Reviews in press.

Kerfeld, C.A.  and Kirilovsky, D.  Structure, Function and Evolution of OCP-based Photoprotection in Cyanobacteria. Genomics of Cyanobacteria, eds., Franck Chauvat and Corrine Cassier-Chauvat.  In press.

Cameron, J.C., Wilson, S.C., Bernstein, S.L. and Kerfeld, C.A.  Biogenesis of a bacterial organelle:  The Carboxysome assembly pathway.  Cell 155:1131-40 (2013).

Zarzycki, J. and Kerfeld, C.A.  The Crystal Structures of tri-functional Chlorofexus aurantiacus and bi-functionalRhodobacter sphaeroides Malyl-CoA Lyases and Comparison with CitE-like superfamily enzymes and Malate Synthases. BMC Structural Biology 13(1):28 (2013).

Sutter, M.,  Wilson, S.C., Deutsch, S. and  Kerfeld, C.A.  Two new high-resolution crystal structures of carboxysome pentamer proteins reveal high structural conservation of CcmL orthologs among distantly related cyanobacterial species. Photosynthesis Research 118:9-16 (2013).

Rajeev, L., Nunes da Rocha, U., Klitgord, N.J.,  Luning, E.G.,  Fortney, J.,  Axen, S.D., Shih, P.M. Bouskill, N.J., Bowen, B., Kerfeld, C.A., Garcia-Pichel, F.,  Brodie, E.L.,  Northen, T.R. and  Mukhopadhyay, A.   Dynamic cyanobacterial response to hydration and dehydration in a desert biological soil crust.  ISME Journal 7: 2178-91 (2013).  

Cai, F., Axen, S. and Kerfeld, C.A. Evidence for the widespread CRISPR-Cas immunity system in the phylumCyanobacteria.   RNA Biology 10: 687-693, 2013.

Kirilovsky, D. and  Kerfeld, C.A. The Orange Carotenoid Protein: A blue-green light photoactive protein.  Photochemistry and Photobiology 12:1135-1143, 2013.

Sutter, M., Wilson, A., Leverenz, R., Lopez-Igual, R., Thurotte, A., Salmeen, A., Kirilovsky, D and Kerfeld, C.A. Crystal structure of the FRP and identification of the active site for modulation of OCP-mediated photoprotection in cyanobacteria.Proceedings of the National Academy of  Sciences, USA 110: 10022-10027, 2013. 

Leikoski, N., Liu, L., Jokela, J., Wahlsten, M., Gugger, M.,  Kerfeld, C.A, Calteau, A.,  Permi, P., Sivonen, K. and Fewer, D.P.  Genome mining expands the chemical diversity of the cyanobactin family to include highly modified linear peptides. Chemistry and Biology 20:1033-1043, 2013

Cai, F., Sutter, M., Cameron, J, Stanley, D and Kerfeld, C.A.  Tandem BMC-domain proteins of carboxysomes form a subcompartment within a microcompartment.  Journal of Biological Chemistry 288:16055-16063, 2013.

Stanley, D., Raines, C.A. and Kerfeld, C.A.  Comparative Analysis of 126 cyanobacterial genomes reveals evidence of functional diversity in the homologs of the redox regulated CP12 protein. Plant Physiology 161: 824-835, 2013.

Kerfeld C.A. Sequences and Consequences.  Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education 41:12-15, 2013.

Zarzycki, J., Axen, S.D., Kinney, J.N. and Kerfeld, C.A.  Cyanobacterial-based Approaches to Improving Plant Photosynthesis.  Journal of Experimental Botany 64:787-98, 2013.

Shih, P.M.,  Wu, D.,Latifi, A.,  Axen, S.D.,  Fewer, D.P.,  Talla, E.,  Calteau, A.,  Cai, F., Tandeau de Marsac, N., Rippka, R., Herdman, M., Sivonen, K., Coursin, T., Laurent, T., Goodwin, L., Nolan, M., Davenport, K.W.,  Han, C.S.,  Rubin, E.M.,  Eisen, J.A.,  Woyke, T., Gugger, M. and Kerfeld,  C.A.  Improving the coverage of the cyanobacterial phylum using diversity-driven genome sequencing, Proceedings of the National Academy of  Sciences, USA 110:1053-1058, 2013. 

Polívka, T., Chábera, P. and Kerfeld, C.A. Carotenoid-protein interaction alters the S1 energy of hydroxyechinenone in the orange carotenoid protein. Biochimica Biophysica Acta 1827:  248-254, 2012.

Kinney, J., Salmeen, A., Cai, F. and Kerfeld, C.A. Elucidating the essential role of CcmN in the carboxysome reveals a common feature of bacterial microcompartment assembly. Journal of Biological Chemistry 287: 17729-17736, 2012.

Wilson, A., Gwizdala, M., Mezzetti, A., Alexandre, M., Kerfeld, C.A. and Kirilovsky, D. The essential role of the N-terminal Domain of the Orange Carotenoid Protein in cyanobacterial photoprotection: Importance of a positive charge for phycobilisome binding.  Plant Cell 24: 1972-1983, 2012.

Roberts, E.W.,  Cai, F., Kerfeld, C.A.,  Cannon, G.C. and Heinhorst, S.  Isolation and Characterization of the Prochlorococcus Carboxysome Reveals the Presence of the Novel Shell Protein Csos1D.  Journal of Bacteriology 194:787-795, 2012.

Kirilovsky, D. and Kerfeld, C.A. The orange carotenoid protein in photoprotection of Photosystem II in cyanobacteria.  Biochimica Biophysica Acta 1817: 158-166, 2012. 

Zhang, T., Datta, S., Eichler, J., Ivanova, N., Axen, S., Kerfeld, C.A., Chen, F., Kyrpides, N., Hugenholtz, P., Cheng, J-F., Sale, K., Pennacchio, L., Simmons, B. and Rubin, E., Identification of haloalkaliphilic and thermostable cellulase with improved ionic liquid tolerance.  Green Chemistry 13: 2083-2090, 2011.

Kinney, J.N., Axen, S. and Kerfeld, C.A. Comparative Analysis of Carboxysome Shell Proteins.  Photosynthesis Research 109: 21-32, 2011.

Cai, F., Sandh, G. and Kerfeld, C.A.  Bioinformatic Identification and Structural Characterization of a New Carboxysome Shell Protein.  In  Functional Genomics and Evolution of Photosynthetic Systems.  Springer, eds. Burnap, R.L. and W. Vermaas. 2011.

Ho, K.K., Kerfeld, C.A. and Krogmann, D.W. The Water-soluble Cytochromes of Cyanobacteria.  In The Bioenergetic Processes of Cyanobacteria – From Evolutionary Singularity to Ecological Diversity.  Springer, ed. Guenther Peschek. 2011.

Kerfeld, C.A. and Kirilovsky, D.   Photoprotection in Cyanobacteria: The Orange Carotenoid Protein and Energy Dissipation. In The Bioenergetic Processes of Cyanobacteria – From Evolutionary Singularity to Ecological Diversity.  Springer, ed. Guenther Peschek. 2011.

Kerfeld, C.A. and Scott, K.M.  Using BLAST To Teach 'E-value-tionary' Concepts.  PLoS Biology 9(2):e100101, 2011.

Kerfeld, C.A.  Physics Incarnate.  PLoS Biology 9(2): e1001022, 2011.

Chábera, P., Durchan, M., Shih, PM, Kerfeld, C.A.and Polívka, T.  Excited-state properties of the 16 kDa red carotenoid protein from Arthrospira maximaBiochimica Biophysica Acta, 1807(1):30-5, 2011.

Kerfeld, C.A. and Gross, L. Open Education, Open Minds. PLoS Biology, 8(10): e1000508. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000508, 2010.

Ditty, J.L., Kvaal, C.A., Goodner, B., Freyermuth, S.K., Bailey, C., Britton, R.A., Gordon, S.G.,  Heinhorst, S., Reed, K. Xu, Z., Sanders-Lorenz, E.R., Axen, S., Kim, E., Johns, M., Scott, K. and Kerfeld, C.A.  Incorporating Genomics and Bioinformatics Across the Life Sciences Curriculum: Development and Implementation of the Integrated Microbial Genomes Annotation Collaboration Toolkit.  PLoS Biology, 8(8): e1000448. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000448, 2010.

Wilson, A., Kinney, J.N., Zwart, P., Punginelli, C., D’Haene, S., Perreau, F., Klein, M.G.,  Kirilovsky, D. and Kerfeld, C.A.  Structural determinants underlying photoprotection in the photoactive orange carotenoid protein of cyanobacteria. Journal of  Biological Chemistry 285: 18364-18375, 2010.

Kerfeld, C.A., Greenleaf, W.B. and Kinney, J.N.  Bacterial Microcompartments.  Microbe 5: 257-263, 2010.

Kerfeld, C.A., Heinhorst, S and Cannon, G.C. Bacterial Microcompartments.  Annual Review of Microbiology 64: 391-408, 2010.

Cannon, G.R., Heinhorst, S. and Kerfeld, C.A. Carboxysomal carbonic anhydrases: Structure and role in microbial CO2 fixation.  Biochimica Biophysica Acta 1804: 382-392, 2010.

Wu, D.,  Hugenholtz, P, Mavromatis, K.,  Pukall, R., Dalin, E., Ivanova, N.,  Kunin, V., Goodwin, L.,  Wu, M., Tindall, B.J., Hooper, S.D., Pati, A.,  Lykidis, A., Spring, S., Anderson, I.J.,  D’haeseleer, P., Zemla, A., Singer, M., Lapidus, A., Nolan, M., Copeland, A., Han, C., Chen, F., Cheng, J-F., Lucas, S., Kerfeld, C.A., Lang, E., Gronow, S.,  Chain, P., Bruce, D., Rubin, E.M., Kyrpides, N.C., Klenk, H-P and Eisen, J.A. A phylogeny-driven genomic encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea.  Nature 462: 1056-1060, 2009. 48.  Kerfeld, C.A., Alexandre, M. and Kirilovsky, D.  The orange carotenoid protein of cyanobacteria.  In Carotenoids: Physical, Chemical and Biological Functions and Properties. CRC Press, ed. John Landrum, 2009.

Klein, M.G.,  Zwart, P.H., Bagby, S.C., Cai, F., Chisholm, S.W., Heinhorst, S., Cannon, G.C and  Kerfeld, C.A.  Identification and Structural Analysis of a Novel Carboxysome Shell Protein reveals a new Oligomeric Building Block with Implications for Transport Across the Shell. Journal of Molecular Biology 392: 319-333, 2009.

Kerfeld, C.A When Art, Science, and Culture Commingle.  PLoS Biology 7: 1-3, 2009.

Wilson, A., Gall, A., Bonetti, C., Alexandre, M.,  Routaboul, J-M., Kerfeld, C.A., van Grondelle, R., Robert, B., Kennis, J.T.M. and Kirilovsky, D.  Novel photoactive carotenoid protein acting as light sensor.  Proceedings of the National Academy of  Sciences, USA 105: 12075-12080, 2008.

Yeates, T.O., Kerfeld, C.A., Heinhorst, S., Cannon, G.C. and Shively, J.  Protein-Based Organelles in Bacteria:  Carboxysomes and Related Microcompartments.  Nature Reviews Microbiology 6: 681-691, 2008.

Kerfeld, C.A., Cai, F., Yeates, T.O., Tanaka, S., Sawaya, M.R., Tsai, Y., Cannon, G. and Heinhorst, S.  Bacterial Microcompartments and Carbon Chemistry: Structure of the Carboxysome and its Function in CO2 Capture.  ACS Fuel Chemistry 53, 2008.

Kerfeld, C.A. Wanted: Undergraduates to help write The Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea.  Focus on Microbiology Education Winter 2008, 4-5.

Tanaka, S., Kerfeld, C.A., Sawaya, M.R., Cai, F., Heinhorst, Cannon, G.R. and Yeates, T.O.  Atomic-level Models of the Bacterial Carboxysome Shell.  Science 319: 1083-1086, 2008.

Kerfeld, C.A. and Simons R.W. The Undergraduate Genomics Research Initiative.  PLoS Biology 5: 980-983, 2007.

Yeates T.O., Tsai, Y., Tanaka, S., Sawaya, M. R., and Kerfeld, C A.  Self-Assembly in the Carboxysome: A Viral Capsid-like Protein Shell in Bacterial Cells.  Biochemical Society Transactions 35: 508-511, 2007.

Tsai, Y., Sawaya, M.R., Cannon, G., Cai, F., Williams, E.B., Heinhorst, S., Kerfeld, C.A. and Yeates, T.O.  The structure of the shell protein CsoS1A from Halothiobacillus neapolitanus and its implications for carboxysome function.  PLoS Biology 5: 1-10, 2007.

Tanaka, S., Sawaya, M.R., Kerfeld, C.A. and Yeates, T.O.  Structure of the RuBisCO Chaperone RbcX from Synechocystis PCC6803.  Acta Crystallographica D63:1109-1112, 2007.

Wilson, A., Boulay, C., Wilde, A.,  Kerfeld, C.A. and Kirilovsky, D.  Light induced energy dissipation in iron-starved cyanobacteria: Roles of OCP and IsiA proteins.  Plant Cell 19: 656-672, 2007.

Scott, K.T, Sievert, S. M., Abril, F. N.,  Ball, L. A., Barrett, C. J., Blake, R. A., Boller, A. J.,  Chain, P. S.,  Clark, J. A.,  Davis, C R.,  Detter, C., Do, K. F., Dobrinski, K. P., Faza, B. I.,  Fitzpatrick, K. A.,  Freyermuth, S. K., Harmer, T. L., Hauser, L. J.,  Hügler, M., Kerfeld, C. A., Klotz, M. G., Kong, W. W ., Land, M., Lapidus, A., Larimer, F.W., Longo, D. L., Lucas, S., Malfatti, S. A., Massey, S. E., Martin, D. D., McCuddin, Z., Meyer, F., Moore, J. L.,  Ocampo,  L.H.,  Paul, J.H., Paulsen, I.T., Reep, D.K., Ren, Q., Ross, R. L.,  Sato, P. Y., Thomas, P., Tinkham, L. E., Zeruth, G. T. The genome of the deep-sea hydrothermal vent γ-proteobacterium Thiomicrospira crunogena is geared for obligate chemolithoautotrophy.  PLoS Biology 4: 2196-2212, 2006.

Sawaya, M.R., Cannon, G.C., Heinhorst, S., Tanaka, S., Williams, E.B., Yeates, T.O. and Kerfeld, C.A.  The Structure of a Carboxysomal Shell Carbonic Anhydrase Reveals A Distinct Subclass of -Carbonic Anhydrase Bearing One Active Site for the Price of Two. Journal of Biological Chemistry 281: 7546-7555, 2006.

Wilson, A., Ajlani, G., Verbavatz, J-M., Vass, I., Kerfeld, C.A. and Kirilovsky, D.  A soluble carotenoid protein involved in phycobilisome-related energy dissipation in cyanobacteria.  Plant Cell 18: 992-1007, 2006.

Kerfeld, C.A., Sawaya, M.R., Tanaka, S., Phillips, M., Beeby, M. and Yeates, T.O.  Protein structures forming the microcompartment shell of primitive bacterial organelles.  Science 309:  936-938, 2005.

Levis, M., Denson, N. and Kerfeld, C.  Undergraduate Students Conducting Research in the Life Sciences: Opportunities for Connected Learning. (Proceedings of the 2005 Association for the Study of Higher Education Conference), Education Resources Information Center, www.eric.ed.gov., 2005.

Polivka, T., Kerfeld, C.A., Pascher, T and Sundstrom V. Spectroscopic Properties of the Carotenoid 3’-hydroxyechinenone in the Orange Carotenoid Protein from the Cyanobacterium Arthrospira maxima. Biochemistry 44: 3994-4003, 2005.

Hervás, M., Díaz-Quintana, A., Kerfeld, C.A., Krogmann, D.W., De la Rosa, M.A. and Navarro, J.A. Cyanobacterial Photosystem I Lacks Specificity in its Interaction with Cytochrome c6 Electron donors.  Photosynthesis Research 83: 329-333, 2005.

Burke, J., Kerfeld C.A., Mendelowitz, E., Drucker, E, Yan, W-H., Holton, T. and West R. Both and Neither: in silico v1.0, Ecce Homology. Leonardo: The Journal of the International Society for the Arts, Science and Technology 4: 286-293, 2005.

Polívka, T., Kerfeld, C.A. and Sundström, V.  Carotenoid excited state dynamics in the orange carotenoid protein from cyanobacteria.  Photosynthesis:  Fundamental Aspects to Global Perspectives, A. van der Est and D. Bruce, eds., pp. 553-557, 2005.

Kerfeld, C. A.  Structure and function of the water-soluble carotenoid-binding proteins of cyanobacteria.  Photosynthesis Research 81: 215-225, 2004. 

Kerfeld, C. A.  Water Soluble Carotenoid Proteins of Cyanobacteria.  Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 430: 2-9, 2004. 

Levis, M., Denson, N. and Kerfeld, C.  “Hands-on” Undergraduate Research Opportunities in the Life Sciences: Preparing the Next Generation of Biological Researchers. Proceedings of the 2004 Association for the Study of Higher Education Conference, Education Resources Information Center, www.eric.ed.gov., 2004.

Kerfeld, C. A., Yoshida, S., Tran, K.T., Yeates, T.O., Cascio, D., Bottin, H., Berthomieu, C., Sugiura, M. and Boussac, A.  The 1.6 Å resolution structure of Fe-superoxide dismutase from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus. Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry 8: 707-714, 2003.

Kerfeld, C. A., Sawaya, M.R., Bottin, H., Tran, K.T., Sugiura, M., Cascio, D., Yeates, T.O., Kirilovsky, D. and Boussac, A. The Soluble form of Cytochrome c550 from the cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus: Structural and EPR Characterization.  Plant Cell Physiology 44: 697-706, 2003.

Kerfeld, C.A., Sawaya, M.R., Bramandam, V., Cascio, D., Ho, K.K. Trevithick-Sutton, C.C., Krogmann, D.W. and Yeates, T.O. The Crystal Structure of a Cyanobacterial Water-Soluble Carotenoid-Binding Protein.  Structure 11: 55-65, 2003.

Kerfeld, C.A., Sawaya, M.R, Krogmann, D.W. and Yeates, T.O. Crystal Structure of Cytochrome c6 from Arthrospira maxima:  An Assembly of 24 Subunits in a Nearly Symmetric Shell. Acta Crystallographica D58: 1104-1110, 2002.

Sawaya, M.R, Krogmann, D.W., Serag, A., Ho, K.K., Yeates, T.O. and Kerfeld, C.A. The Structures of Cytochrome c-549 and Cytochrome c6 from the Cyanobacterium Arthrospira maxima Biochemistry 40: 9215-9225, 2001.

Kerfeld, C.A., Levis, M. and Perry, J.P. Teaching and Exploring the Social Implications of Twenty-first Century Molecular Biology in a Laboratory-Based General Education Course.  Innovative Higher Education 26: 87-102, 2001.

Kerfeld, C.A., Salmeen, A.E. and Yeates, T.O.  Crystal Structure and Possible Dimerization of the High-Potential Iron-Sulfur Protein from Chromatium purpuratumBiochemistry 37: 13911-13917, 1998.

Kerfeld, C.A. and Krogmann, D.W. Photosynthetic Cytochromes C in Cyanobacteria, Algae and Plants.  Annual Review of Plant Physiology 49: 397-425, 1998.

Kerfeld, C.A. Ho, K.K. and Krogmann, D.W.  The Cytochromes c of Cyanobacteria. In The Phototrophic Prokaryotes (G.A. Peschek, W. Loffelhardt and G. Schmetterer, eds.) pp. 259-268, 1997.

Kerfeld, C. A.:  Structural Comparison of Cytochrome c2 and Cytochrome c6.  Photosynthesis Research 54: 81-98, 1997.

Kerfeld, C.A., Wu, Y.P., Chan, C., Krogmann, D.W. and Yeates, T.O.:  Crystals of the Carotenoid-Protein from Arthrospira maxima Containing Uniformly Oriented Pigment Molecules.  Acta Crystallographica D53: 720-723, 1997.

Kerfeld, C.A., Chan, C. and Yeates, T.O.:  Biochemical Characterization and Three-Dimensional Structure of Dimeric High Potential Iron-sulfur Protein from Chromatium purpuratum.  Photosynthesis: From Light to Biosphere 2: 757-760. 1995.

Kerfeld, C.A., Chan, C., Hirasawa, M., Kleiss-SanFrancisco, S., Yeates, T.O. and Knaff, D.B.: Isolation and Characterization of Soluble Electron Transfer Proteins from Chromatium purpuratum. Biochemistry 35: 7812-7818. 1995.

Kerfeld, C.A., Merchant, S., Anwar, H. P. and Yeates, T.O.:  The Structure of Chloroplast Cytochrome c6 at 1.9Å Resolution:  Evidence for Functional Oligomerization.  Journal of Molecular Biology 250: 627-647, 1995.

Kerfeld, C. A., Yeates, T. O. and Thornber, J. P.:  Biochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of the Reaction Center-LH1 the Carotenoid-Containing B820 Subunit of Chromatium purpuratum. Biochimica Biophysica Acta 1185:193-202, 1994.

Kerfeld, C. A., Yeates, T. O. and Thornber, J. P.:  Purification and Characterization of the Peripheral Antenna of the Purple-Sulfur Bacterium Chromatium purpuratum:  Evidence of an Unusual Pigment-Protein Composition.  Biochemistry 33: 2178-2184, 1994.

Thornber, J. P., Cogdell, R. J., Chitnis, P., Peter, G. F., Gomez, S., Morishige, D. T., Anandan, S., Preiss, S., Welty, B. A., Lee, A., Takeuchi, T. S. and Kerfeld, C. A.:  Antenna Pigment-Protein Complexes of Higher Plants and Purple Bacteria.  In Advances in Molecular Cell Biology (J. Barber, ed.), vol. 9, JAI Press, 1994.

Pushkin, A. V., Eiserling, F. A., Kerfeld, C. A. and Thornber, J. P.:  Isolation and Quaternary Structure of the Photosynthetic Core of the Marine Purple Sulfur Bacterium Chromatium purpuratumFEMS Microbiology Letters 113: 167-174, 1993.

Kerfeld, C. A., Thornber, J. P. and Yeates, T. O.:  Crystallization of Integral-Membrane Pigment-Protein Complexes from the Purple-Sulfur Bacterium Chromatium purpuratumProtein Science 2: 1352-1355, 1993.

Thornber, J. P., Peter, G. F., Morishige, D. T., Gomez, S., Anandan, S., Kerfeld, C. A., Welty, B. A., Lee, A., Takeuchi, T. S. and Preiss, S.:  The Multiple Light-Harvesting Pigment-Proteins of Photosystems I and II of Green Plants: Biochemical Descriptions, Gene Sequences and Organization.  Biochemical Society Transactions 21: 15-18, 1993

Kerfeld, C. A., Thornber, J. P. and Yeates, T. O.:  Biochemical and Structural Characterization of the Photosynthetic Apparatus of a Purple-Sulfur Bacterium:  Chromatium purpuratum.  In Current Research in Photosynthesis, (N. Murata, ed.), vol. I, 49-52, 1992.

2.  Ferguson, L., Halloren, E., Hawthornethwaite, A. M., Cogdell, R. J., Kerfeld, C.A., Peter, G. F. and Thornber, J. P.:  Use of Non-Denaturing Deriphat Gel Electrophoresis to Fractionate Pigment-Protein Complexes of Purple Bacteria.  Photosynthesis Research 30: 139-143, 1991.

Cogdell, R. J., Hawthornethwaite, A. M., Evans, M. B., Ferguson, L. A., Kerfeld, C. A., Thornber, J. P., van Mourik, F. and van Grondelle, R.: Isolation and Characterization of an Unusual Antenna Complex From the Purple Sulfur Photosynthetic Bacterium Chromatium purpuratumBiochimica Biophysica Acta 1019: 239-244, 1990.